Criminal law deals with offences and their punishment. In a criminal offence, the State takes upon itself the responsibility to investigate and collect evidence to fight and represent the case in court and enforce the punishment on behalf of the victim / first informant. Criminal offences such are theft, rape, murder, cheating, forgery, mischief, house-trespass etc. are envisaged in the Indian Penal Code, 1960.
The Penal Code defines the offence, the ingredients of the offence and sets out the punishment for the offence. In India, grave crimes like rape, murder, theft etc. are cognizable, non-bailable, and non-compoundable in nature whereas crimes like public nuisance, simple hurt, mischief etc. are non-cognizable, bailable and compoundable offences. It also covers Special Acts such as NDPS, POCSO, EOW, White Collar Crimes, PMLA, FDA, CBI Matters etc.